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This includes factoring in many variables, such as the amount of radiation the object was exposed to each year.These techniques are accurate only for material ranging from a few thousand to 500,000 years old — some researchers argue the accuracy diminishes significantly after 100,000 years.For example, New Zealand’s massive Taupo volcano erupted in A. Relative chronology: Researchers have often constructed timelines of a culture or civilization based on the stylistic evolution of its decorative or dramatic arts — that’s why the method is also sometimes called stylistic seriation.Generally speaking, the more complex a poem or piece of pottery is, the more advanced it is and the later it falls in the chronology.Unlike observation-based relative dating, most absolute methods require some of the find to be destroyed by heat or other means.This family of dating methods, some more than a century old, takes advantage of the environment’s natural radioactivity.Sometimes only one method is possible, reducing the confidence researchers have in the results. “They’re based on ‘it’s that old because I say so,’ a popular approach by some of my older colleagues,” says Shea, laughing, “though I find I like it myself as I get more gray hair.” Kidding aside, dating a find is crucial for understanding its significance and relation to other fossils or artifacts.Methods fall into one of two categories: relative or absolute.
The good dates are confirmed using at least two different methods, ideally involving multiple independent labs for each method to cross-check results.
It would be like having a watch that told you day and night.” Single crystal fusion: Also called single crystal argon or argon-argon (Ar-Ar) dating, this method is a refinement of an older approach known as potassium-argon (K-Ar) dating, which is still sometimes used.
Both methods date rock instead of organic material. But unlike radiocarbon dating, the older the sample, the more accurate the dating — researchers typically use these methods on finds at least 500,000 years old.
While K-Ar dating requires destroying large samples to measure potassium and argon levels separately, Ar-Ar dating can analyze both at once with a single, smaller sample.
Uranium series dating: U-series dating includes a number of methods, each based on different uranium isotopes’ decay rates.
Before more precise absolute dating tools were possible, researchers used a variety of comparative approaches called relative dating.